August 2, when the moon Dunhuang Qing Qin Han Guan, Long March has not yet,
But to make Ioki fly in, do not teach Humayun Yinshan degrees.
Came to Dunhuang, I think of Wang Changling's "Wong Zao." Here the number of years of history left behind nicks: Han Dynasty Great Wall, Sha Chau Old City, Mogao Grottoes, Yulin Grottoes, Western Thousand-Buddha Grottoes, White Horse Pagoda ... ...
Dunhuang, a Silk Road fork north and south, like a shining pearl inlaid on the ancient Silk Road to shine as brightly. Dunhuang is located in a desert area in the south Sanweishan (perhaps what we saw in the car stretches hundred miles of mountains) and the north of the Han Dynasty Great Wall, Dunhuang witnessed the rise and fall of dynasties.
Wei Qing, Huo Qubing repulsed the Huns, after the formal establishment of the Han Dynasty in Hexi four counties: Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangye, Wuwei, and in the southwest of Dunhuang to build customs and yumenguan Yang, Han-pass the traffic control of the Western Regions throat. The development of the Han Dynasty to the Hexi Dunhuang not only bring about economic prosperity, but also to the Central Plains culture and spread to Dunhuang. Sixteen Kingdoms Eastern Jin Dynasty era, Dunhuang became the capital of Western Liang regime (Dunhuang, the only time in history as the capital). Emperor unified China, he must account to make contributions, as did the Han Emperor Wu began to patrol the West. Yang Di West Patrol lifted Tuyuhun and Turkish harassment of the Hexi Corridor, bringing unprecedented prosperity of the Silk Road. Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty inheritance, changing state of Dunhuang for the sand into the history of the golden age. After the An, Tang lost Hexi, Anxi, North court's jurisdiction, from a hard kick vibration. Hexi Jiedushi before and after the destruction of sand were melons Tibetan people's indomitable fight right to write the most epic one of the Dunhuang. Historians of the Dunhuang people in the struggle against barbarians Pingjiapogao that there was no shagwa anti-fan, there is no uprising in late Tang Dynasty, Zhang Chao mobilize people, there is no Gui Yi Jun Period after nearly 200 years of history, and no 9-11C of the Silk Road smooth again. Along with the last rise of the Yuan Dynasty sandbank, and the Ming Dynasty was busy operating the water transport, construction sand Kuala Jiayuguan give up two states, Dunhuang deserted. Not until the Qing Emperor Yongzheng before gradually recovering.
Modern Dunhuang has aroused worldwide attention, "Dunhuang" has become a culture of discipline. The reason is the discovery of the Mogao Grottoes Cangjing Dong. Yulin Grottoes Mogao Thousand Buddha Caves and the things lined up, can be described as the mountain is a Buddha through over and over. It combines the deep, mysterious, secret, God, the United States, following on the whole, financial architecture, murals, sculpture art as a furnace, is a rare cultural treasures of mankind and spiritual wealth. However, in modern times, which makes him the humiliation of the Chinese nation, the history of hysteria has been opened up. Let us listen to narrators recount the history of the Mogao Grottoes bar.
To the southeast of Dunhuang Sanweishan Ji at the beginning of the season after the rain, often suddenly burst out brilliant charming? Buddha?, Little is disappearing, the magnificent and mysterious. (Not the Eastern Jin Dynasty) Former Qin, there was one monk in the three risk 10000 Piedmont Suddenly golden light, that the Buddha Spirit Vision, then in the opposite Sanweishan sand hills dug the first cave. After fifteen hundred years, people gradually dug caves. Buddhism in the Sui Dynasty was flourishing, in 30 years, went so far as the construction of more than 70 caves. Tang, Song, Western Xia, Yuan has left a more ambitious masterpiece. So far still more than 500 caves.
Dunhuang abandoned when the result of Ming and Qing Dynasties, 19c last years has been a Huangsha accumulation of Mogao Grottoes, the bottom buried a number of caves. The remaining three small temple, is a tempest round into Taoist Taoist Lu. Wang Daoshi to fortune-telling for a living, unwittingly became an actual host Mogao Grottoes. He alms have the money ask for people to clean the caves of sand to repair the statue. One day, has been invited by the book, copying the old man accidentally cracks with grass straw inserted in the wall feel bottomless, concluded that wall is empty. Mean this this Wangdao Shi. Night, Wang Daoshi dug the corridor wall: So this is a smaller cave, which actually filled with books packed in! This cave is shocking Cangjing Dong!
That time, the Eight Allied Forces invaded China, a cultural treasure-house in this unfortunate era has been discovered! The tragedy began Mogao Grottoes Cangjing Dong!
Xinjiang is the area of archaeological excavation, theft of cultural treasures of the imperialist robbers learned the news of the Dunhuang found Cangjing Dong, crazy Puzhi Mogao Grottoes.
In 1907, British Aurel Stein in 40 chestnut silver from the hands of ignorance of ignorance Wang Daoshi defrauded the 24 cases selected by the volume and 5 boxes painting, embroidery and some crafts. These Dunhuang relics sensation in Europe. The following year, the French scholar Paul Pelliot and the use of 3 weeks time in the Cangjing Dong carefully selected, "purchase" was a high academic value of 6000 patients by the volume. He returned to the cave number, shooting murals. Stein, Paul Pelliot harvest shocked the world in Dunhuang, Japan's Otani expedition, Russia's E Goldenberg, coming Dunhuang, would not have done anything to say. As the Chinese scholar's strong appeal in 1910, and corrupt Qing Dynasty had ordered transported to Beijing Dunhuang. Sadly, local officials along the route will again be stolen robbed! It can be said stole Dunhuang addition to foreigners, the Chinese people themselves are the robber ah! Even more distressing is that Wang Daoshi had possession of a large number of scrolls left to the hands of Stein.
Cang Jingdong the ancient library of all the classics have been carved up, yet the catastrophe is not over. Wang Daoshi ignorance of ignorance in order to plot "merit", invited the level of production of a statue of poor artisans, repair the Buddha's head, arms, or even get through the wall between the cave, leading to the destruction of a large mural! Mogao Grottoes in 1920 will again be catastrophe: a band of white in the Russian Revolution defeated by the Chinese authorities detained stupid and ignorant local officials trying to shift the palace of art, as places of detention! As a result, murals, painted sculptures as we vent our anger, filled with murals on the Slavs of indecent words; cave cooking fire smoke was black ... ...
In 1923, the American Langdon Warner to Dunhuang and found Cangjing Dong has been carved up a space to settle old scores, shamelessly extending its tentacles to other caves: blatantly stripping murals, stole two fine Tang plastic.
As for the Cangjing Dong Yao for Tibet would be full of the classics? Archaeologists, historians tend to "refuge, said." 11c the beginning of the rise of party items tribe to win the Hexi Corridor. Mogao Cave monk worried by the volume of lost in the war, all centrally located in a small cave-in, mud plugging. Since then, the West re-Although the Government is to create a grotto, went so far as no one knows Cangjing Dong secret. So the ancient library has been preserved intact. 800 years later, was eventually found in isolated Cangjing Dong Unfortunately, the timing of God in a tragic era!
After listening to instructors explain the extremely rich history, each one with conscience of Chinese people want to cry.
During the visit, I have not yet fascinating stats, head humming, says the slightest Mo Liushen books - Early Center Pylon style - square plane to follow the Big Dipper - Center for Buddhist altar - the ever-changing architectural styles . As for the Buddha sculptures, the early days of India a greater impact on the pursuit of gorgeous Sui, Tang Dynasty, plump face, etc., I do not know how to appreciate. Explanations of the murals Daoshi instructors attracted me. If Jiuse Lu's story, playing the guitar and flying. I have a collection of elementary school set of Dunhuang murals stamps, treasure there is Canada, now have the honor in person to appreciate, can not help but feel excited. Flying and Western oil painting to see the difference between angels: angel body wings, like birds flying; while flying in Dunhuang silk can be done by just a thin Jigen flutter! Who is greater, that goes without saying! Flying implied "sail, wind-driven, Heart," a profound philosophy.
Caves of the largest statue of a truly unforgettable. That's Empress Wu to consolidate his throne by removing the Maitreya Buddha. High 10 floors! Maitreya Buddha is said to top-heavy little out of proportion. It just looks up at the Christians revised visual illusion. I would like to invest in. stone carving craftsmen to do so deliberately, or inadvertently made this way, and then watch the craftsmen in the following that ok to call it a day out? Reminds me of the Shiren Qianling Sima Road, are top-heavy small, seems deliberately made so. As to why the top-heavy small, does not understand. There is another cave, inside a coffin made in the form of a lying in the middle, "smiling like Nirvana."
In a cave in front of a mural on display works by the Office of copying. Most of the murals in caves off, or because too dark been blind, and now we can copy from these works carefully to appreciate. Colorful frescoes, and elegant Chinese painting freehand style very different. Perhaps the mural is painted on the wall, so the color a bit thick in order to better view bar. Difficult to define but also in the frame on a cliff, so murals are always filled very full, very few left blank. This painting has had some features of Western music. Some murals, at first glance thought the Western painting. No wonder so many foreigners attracted! I saw the works of Chang Ta-chien, exquisite peerless. Speaking of Chang Ta-chien, the modern assessment of his controversial.
Mogao Grottoes in 1941, Chang Ta-chien heard there are many ancient paintings, he embarked with his disciples to Dunhuang. While the splendid Tang-huang murals, Chang enchanted. With a broad range of artistic accomplishments, he largely ceded the style of the era of cave paintings. He copied a number of murals, the exhibition opened, causing a sensation. Many people think that these murals are too secular (and possibly is, I think the reasons for not Chinese painting), against Chang to continue copying. At that time, folk artist of the mural is considered non-traditional art, but today's era of high standing, the experts admit that it is the skill of those folk artist profound artist.
Chang Ta-chien decided Zaiqu "make a big fight." This time is really a big dry. I remember when the instructors introduced the murals mentioned, Chang was found later murals, live coverage of the previous generation, and then stripped of copy then get back on the surface to copy. The move into today's debate. As the first study of Dunhuang Studies of the esthetician, early Dunhuang scholars Pingjiapogao him, "I really can be in the Folk Art on the other creating a new realm, which is an immortal of the events in the Dunhuang area, but also carry on regardless." But in today point of view, peeling frescoes, no doubt to make the Dunhuang frescoes have suffered a disaster again! Chang Dai-chien in the Mogao Grottoes stay more than a year, stripping damaged ancient wall paintings are more than three, damaging three cave! Perhaps in his view, copy down the mural is "rescue" National Treasure!
It is evident from the scriptures Stein, "theft" to the British Library in London, also considered a kind of "rescue" it? !
Alleged that the interior walls of the cave there are as many essays written by Chang Dai-chien brush. Some people say, "This kind of indifference towards the Chinese national treasures, as well as overweening attitude astonishing."
About Moga-rich display, and our mood was calm. We were pleasantly surprised in recent years, Chinese scholars Dunhuang Studies for their contributions. I believe that in the near future, "Dunhuang in China, Dunhuang studies have in a foreign country," saying such a humiliation could be wiped out.
Exhibition center in terms of modeling, metaphorical, or interior space, I think very successful, only the Sun Lei not like it. I thought to myself; Do not tell me this is a Japanese design!
500 miles south of Dunhuang, a block from the plot since the sand hill, which is Mingsha. Thought that in this vast desert Tuodui walk through, Smoke in the desert, did not expect so many visitors it really festive. No trace of human habitation shortage has already lost behind.
I saw one take a dune, blade-like sharp ridges, sway out of a Road, the lonely beautiful lines. In the evening, twilight, the ridge side of the golden tan by the sun, on the other side is dark gray overcast, the strong contrast between both sides, but also showing meandering ridge flying. Sand has been trampled in front of bumps and hollows, like waves. We walked a few steps, good soft-ah! Each step by step into a half-step! So we walk barefoot. Inspired by their predecessors, if the actual number of footprints, and take up less laborious. We, like other tourists, like climbing along the ridge. At first I thought that climb, "sharp" ridge risk of wrong, but in fact is the safest! The most gentle slope of the ridge, not easy Xianxia Qu. When the sand is said to climb down as the waves churn issue a roaring voice, so that Mingsha Mountain. However, we are not heard! Only heard in the distance Tuodui Din Din of the Camel and the tourists laugh. Visitors step on the sand down and trampled over many years will the Mingsha tied? Do not worry, the next day put the wind into the blade as sharp ridge to restore a.
Climbed a hill, looked back and Crescent Moon Spring on Ming Sha being surrounded by mountains! Hastened to sit down and appreciate the wonders of nature! Yihong water such as the crescent curved. Hands, raise a glass of sand, thin, smooth, Shude from the fingers between the shed. Vast desert magnificent ring holding Crescent Moon, which brought her more and more noticeable as a kind of soft and delicate beauty. Crescent Moon Spring is said to live very special terrain, the wind from the Western Hills mouth, the East Pass out, all year round spinner rise, which will step back under the large sand scraping mountains, and the "spring does not dry up dried up," nor for the sand buried. Really created a masterpiece of nature!
We also climbed a peak and saw in front of some sand-boarding, and hurried past. We look forward to when you can hear the sand down sound of roaring, but the decline is too slow, and ultimately not heard. Maybe not a slip are also very fast, too crazy, and who has the brains to listen to sand-Ming Gu Zhe!
Completely gone to the sun, sand hills, Ming is still crowded, camels are still tirelessly to bring tourists back pack on the next ... ... We reluctantly left the sand hills, Ming.
August 3 Dunhuang Dunhuang City Museum looks cloudy for several decades without renovation, chen very. However, possession of Dunhuang and other rare treasures, described as "Straw Gai Pearl"!
Dunhuang Silk Road as the main line of history is based. Although the Silk Road was abandoned in the Ming Dynasty, but it remains left to us still shine with brilliant Guanghua. It can be imagined, the ancient Silk Road, Inn all over, a town in conjunction beads, which is how the sight of prosperity! In addition to the Taklimakan Desert along the Silk Road South, north of "North and South 2," but later they opened the Dunhuang - Hami - Turfan - Jimsar - Ili River Valley - Lake Balkhash - the Central Asian countries "New North Road . " Tomorrow we must by the "New North Road" to Turpan has.
We do not have time to Yang Guan, yumenguan. Fortunately, in this can take a look at pictures. Operating in the Han Yang Guan, yumenguan today does not exist, leaving only a "small square plate city" looks like, that is an enormous mound. The Jade Gate of the sites, historians, archaeologists are still not recognized at home until now. Yumenguan, do you look like?
Yellow far the clouds, the one isolate them Maninsan.
Why blame Qiangdi willow, spring is not degree yumenguan.
White Horse Pagoda has a story to. Former Qin years, and west Fujian Lu Guang Yang sent off to war the Western Regions. Home return after victory, the army brought Kucha Mingseng Kumarajiva to Chang'an Transwhiz (Kumarajiva and Xuanzang, the true meaning of Buddhist scriptures translated in China is not empty and said four people). Kumarajiva riding a white horse, gone through hardships to reach Dunhuang. Unexpectedly, the White Horse ill. Dove to his dream of the White Horse, said: "I am subject to fate, in the vast oceans of sand in the pack you have the East Buddhism. Now is the Yang Guan Avenue in front of my mission has ended." Kumarajiva awakened-to-know white horse is dead . He spent huge sums of money to build the tower to commemorate the White Horse.
Station base, on sub-nine-story tower. The first layer actually TOJO, octagonal-shaped; second layer also showed octagonal, some for hours; third, fourth, five-story circular for the Angular overlap, there are cornices, but a very shallow eaves; sixth floor was Lotus petal-like; 7th floor tower for the follow-up bowl, it seems La Mata tower; third to the eighth floor, such as five-story, more a small contraction in diameter; ninth layer phase Lunxing, its roof slope for the hexagonal brake plate, it seems made of metal, each corner hung a wind chimes. The appropriate proportion of the entire tower, beautiful.
White Horse Pagoda in the sand so the city, so the tower after the corn (barley?) Fields to go to Step 100 will be able to see the ancient city wall remains. The ancient city has been reduced to farmland, with the exception of some parts of the walls are still standing. In fact, the walls are only a mound, but for a certain height, people really thought it was local farmers with debris up to the fence! White Horse Pagoda in the back of a monument, the inscription records the Qing Dynasty (?) To give up gucheng reasons: "After the party's northern red water" ... ... "another built the Acropolis."
Tomorrow I and Sun Lei, Deming would go to Turpan, while Liu Lixin Liu is back to Shijiazhuang. Remembered Liu Lixin Liu in Xi'an (Weicheng) go hand in hand with us until the Dunhuang (Yang Guan), and we say good-bye, it should be for us to sing a "Weicheng song" ah:
Weicheng dust, Chao Yu-eup, guest houses, green Green is the Willow.
Jun also advised to make a cup of wine, and west, Yang Guan people for no reason.